Scientific Evidence

Thieves (and component oils)

Allergy. 1995 Dec;50(12):995-9.
Cinnamon bark oil, a potent fungitoxicant against fungi causing respiratory tract mycoses.
Singh HB1, Srivastava M, Singh AB, Srivastava AK.
Author information

Cinnamic aldehyde has been identified as the active fungitoxic constituent of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil. The fungitoxic properties of the vapours of the oil/active constituent against fungi involved in respiratory tract mycoses, i.e., Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans A. flavus, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. pseudotropicalis, and Histoplasma capsulatum, were determined in vitro as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum lethal concentration (MLC), inoculum density sustained, and exposure duration for fungicidal action at MIC and higher doses, as well as effect of incubation temperatures on fungitoxicity. It is concluded that these inhalable vapours appear to approach the ideal chemotherapy for respiratory tract mycoses.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2001 May;47(5):565-73.
Antibacterial activity of essential oils and their major constituents against respiratory tract pathogens by gaseous contact.
Inouye S1, Takizawa T, Yamaguchi H.
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The antibacterial activity of 14 essential oils and their major constituents in the gaseous state was evaluated against Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. For most essential oils examined, H. influenzae was most susceptible, followed by S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes, and then S. aureus. Penicillin-susceptible and -resistant S. pneumoniae were comparable in susceptibility. Escherichia coli, which was used as a control, showed least susceptibility. A minimal inhibitory dose (MID) was introduced as a measure of the vapour activity. Among 14 essential oils, cinnamon bark, lemon-grass and thyme oils showed the lowest MID, followed by essential oils containing terpene alcohols as major constituents. The essential oils containing terpene ketone, ether and, in particular, hydrocarbon had high MIDS. The vapour activity on short exposure was comparable to that following overnight exposure, and rapid evaporation was more effective than slow evaporation of essential oils. The vapour concentration and absorption into agar of essential oils reached a maximum 1 or 2 h after rapid evaporation. These results indicate that the antibacterial action of essential oils was most effective when at high vapour concentration for a short time.

Am J Chin Med. 2006;34(3):511-22.
Antimicrobial activities of cinnamon oil and cinnamaldehyde from the Chinese medicinal herb Cinnamomum cassia Blume.
Ooi LS1, Li Y, Kam SL, Wang H, Wong EY, Ooi VE.
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Both Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl. and Cinnamomum cassia Blume are collectively called Cortex Cinnamonmi for their medicinal cinnamon bark. Cinnamomum verum is more popular elsewhere in the world, whereas C. cassia is a well known traditional Chinese medicine. An analysis of hydro-distilled Chinese cinnamon oil and pure cinnamaldehyde by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that cinnamaldehyde is the major component comprising 85% in the essential oil and the purity of cinnamaldehyde in use is high (> 98%). Both oil and pure cinnamaldehyde of C. cassia were equally effective in inhibiting the growth of various isolates of bacteria including Gram-positive (1 isolate, Staphylococcus aureus), and Gram-negative (7 isolates, E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Samonella typhymurium), and fungi including yeasts (four species of Candida, C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei), filamentous molds (4 isolates, three Aspergillus spp. and one Fusarium sp.) and dermatophytes (three isolates, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagraphytes). Their minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) as determined by agar dilution method varied only slightly. The MICs of both oil and cinnamaldehyde for bacteria ranged from 75 microg/ml to 600 microg/ml, for yeasts from 100 microg/ml to 450 microg/ml, for filamentous fungi from 75 microg/ml to 150 microg/ml, and for dermatophytes from 18.8 microg/ml to 37.5 microg/ml. The antimicrobial effectiveness of C. cassia oil and its major constituent is comparable and almost equivalent, which suggests that the broad-spectrum antibiotic activities of C. cassia oil are due to cinnamaldehyde. The relationship between structure and function of the main components of cinnamon oil is also discussed.

Int J Food Microbiol. 2006 Mar 15;107(2):180-5. Epub 2005 Nov 2.
Antimicrobial activity of cinnamon and clove oils under modified atmosphere conditions.
Matan N1, Rimkeeree H, Mawson AJ, Chompreeda P, Haruthaithanasan V, Parker M.
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Mixtures of cinnamon and clove oils were tested for inhibitory activity against important spoilage microorganism of intermediate moisture foods. Four fungal species (Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium roqueforti, Mucor plumbeus and Eurotium sp.), four yeasts species (Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia membranaefaciens, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida lipolytica), and two bacteria species (Staphylococcus aureus and Pediococcus halophilus) inoculated separately on agar plates were sealed in a barrier pouch and exposed to essential oil volatiles under a modified atmosphere of low O2 (<0.05-10%) and high CO2 (20% or 40%), with the balance being N2. A. flavus and Eurotium sp. proved to be the most resistant microorganisms. Cinnamon and clove oils added between 1000 and 4000 microL at a ratio of 1:1 were tested for minimum inhibitory volume (MIV) against molds and yeasts. The gas phase above 1000 microL of the oil mixture inhibited growth of C. lipolytica and P. membranaefaciens; 2000 microL inhibited growth of A. flavus, P. roqueforti, M. plumbeus, Eurotium sp., D. hansenii, and Z. rouxii, while inhibition of A. flavus required the addition of 4000 microL. Higher ratios of cinnamon oil/clove oil were more effective for inhibiting the growth of A. flavus.

New Cinnamon-Based Active Paper Packaging against Rhizopusstolonifer Food Spoilage
A. Rodríguez, C. Nerín and R. Batlle

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), CPS-University of Zaragoza, María de Luna St. 3, E-50018 Zaragoza, Spain
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Vol. 56: Issue. 15: Pages. 6364-6369
Publication Date (Web): July 16, 2008
DOI: 10.1021/jf800699q
A new active paper package based on the incorporation of cinnamon essential oil to solid wax paraffin as an active coating is proposed, developed, and evaluated. The antifungal activity of the active paper is tested against Rhizopusstolonifer, and the results demonstrate that 6% (w/w) of the essential oil in the active coating formulation completely inhibits the growth of R. stolonifer, whereas 4% still has strong antimicrobial activity in in vitro conditions. Then, active paper is evaluated with actual food, sliced bread, using different storage times. After 3 days of storage, almost complete inhibition is obtained with 6% cinnamon essential oil. Qualitative analysis by solid-phase microextraction and determination of cinnamaldehyde in the sliced bread were also performed and confirmed the strong correspondence between the inhibition of the mold and the amount of cinnamaldehyde in the bread.

Synergistic Antimicrobial Activities of Natural Essential Oils with Chitosan Films
Lina Wang, Fei Liu, Yanfeng Jiang, Zhi Chai, Pinglan Li, Yongqiang Cheng, Hao Jing and Xiaojing Leng

CAU&ACC Joint-Laboratory of Space Food, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, Key Laboratory of Functional Dairy Science of Beijing and Ministry of Education, Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Animal Product, China Agricultural University, No. 17 Qinghua East Road, Haidian, Beijing 100083, China
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Vol. 59: Issue. 23: Pages. 12411-12419
Publication Date (Web): October 29, 2011
DOI: 10.1021/jf203165k
The synergistic antimicrobial activities of three natural essential oils (i.e., clove bud oil, cinnamon oil, and star anise oil) with chitosan films were investigated. Cinnamon oil had the best antimicrobial activity among three oils against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus oryzae, and Penicillium digitatum. The chitosan solution exhibited good inhibitory effects on the above bacteria except the fungi, whereas chitosan film had no remarkable antimicrobial activity. The cinnamon oil–chitosan film exhibited a synergetic effect by enhancing the antimicrobial activities of the oil, which might be related to the constant release of the oil. The cinnamon oil–chitosan film had also better antimicrobial activity than the clove bud oil–chitosan film. The results also showed that the compatibility of cinnamon oil with chitosan in film formation was better than that of the clove bud oil with chitosan. However, the incorporated oils modified the mechanical strengths, water vapor transmission rate, moisture content, and solubility of the chitosan film. Furthermore, chemical reaction took place between cinnamon oil and chitosan, whereas phase separation occurred between clove bud oil and chitosan.

Br J Community Nurs. 2005 Mar;10(3):123-6.
Is tea tree oil effective at eradicating MRSA colonization? A review.
Flaxman D1, Griffiths P.
Author information

In vitro studies show that tea tree oil is capable of killing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a laboratory setting. This review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was undertaken to find out whether it is effective at eradicating MRSA colonization compared to standard mupirocin-based regimens in colonized patients. A wide range of databases and internet sources were searched to identify published and unpublished studies. Two RCTs were found that researched the effectiveness of tea tree oil preparations against MRSA. One small RCT (n = 30) showed a large but non-significant improvement at eradicating MRSA compared to traditional treatment, whereas a larger study (n = 224) demonstrated little difference in rates of eradication overall (41% for tea tree and 49% for mupirocin, p = 0.286). However, the larger study found that those with nasal colonization receiving a tea tree regimen were more likely to remain colonized with MRSA in the nose (absolute risk increase 31%, p<0.001). Currently there is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of tea tree oil in clinical practice for eradication of MRSA colonization.

J Hosp Infect. 2004 Apr;56(4):283-6.
A randomized, controlled trial of tea tree topical preparations versus a standard topical regimen for the clearance of MRSA colonization.
Dryden MS1, Dailly S, Crouch M.
Author information

Two topical MRSA eradication regimes were compared in hospital patients: a standard treatment included mupirocin 2% nasal ointment, chlorhexidine gluconate 4% soap, silver sulfadiazine 1% cream versus a tea tree oil regimen, which included tea tree 10% cream, tea tree 5% body wash, both given for five days. One hundred and fourteen patients received standard treatment and 56 (49%) were cleared of MRSA carriage. One hundred and ten received tea tree oil regimen and 46 (41%) were cleared. There was no significant difference between treatment regimens (Fisher’s exact test; P = 0.0286). Mupirocin was significantly more effective at clearing nasal carriage (78%) than tea tree cream (47%; P = 0.0001) but tea tree treatment was more effective than chlorhexidine or silver sulfadiazine at clearing superficial skin sites and skin lesions. The tea tree preparations were effective, safe and well tolerated and could be considered in regimens for eradication of MRSA carriage.

Effect of a diffused essential oil blend on bacterial bioaerosols
Authors: Chao, SC | Young, DG | Oberg, CJ
Journal: Journal of Essential Oil Research [J. Essent. Oil Res.]. Vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 517-523. Sep-Oct 1998.
Location: Weber State University, Ogden, UT

Thieves, a commercial blend of five essential oils, was tested for its antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus bioaerosols. An aerosol suspension of each bacterial culture was sprayed into a 0.4 m super(3) enclosed fume hood previously sterilized by ultraviolet light. Thieves essential oil blend was then diffused into the hood for a given time. Depositional sampling results showed a significant reduction (P<0.0001) in the aerosol-borne bacterial load after diffusion of the oil blend. Controls showed no inhibitory effect of oil that may have settled on the exposed plate surfaces during bacterial depositional sampling. Inhibition levels appear to be organism specific. There was an 82% reduction in M. luteus bioaerosol, a 96% reduction in the P. aeruginosa bioaerosol, and a 44% reduction in the S. aureus bioaerosol following 10 min of exposure. Results for the time exposure threshold of diffused oil showed that after only six min a 90% reduction in M. luteus viability occurred.
Diffusion of the oil blend, Thieves, can significantly reduce the number of aerosol-borne bacteria and may have application in treating air for enclosed environments and preventing transmission of aerosol-borne bacterial pathogens.

Japanese Cypress

J Med Food. 2015 Jul;18(7):810-7. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2014.3309. Epub 2015 Apr 29.

Chamaecyparis obtusa [Cypress] Essential Oil Inhibits Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Expression of Virulence Factors.

Kim ES1, Kang SY2, Kim YH3, Lee YE1,4, Choi NY5, You YO1,2, Kim KJ6.

Author information


The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has caused difficulty in treating infectious diseases. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most commonly recognized antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Novel antibiotics are urgently required to treat these bacteria. Raw materials derived from natural sources can be used for the development of novel antibiotics, such as Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa), which has been traditionally used in treating asthmatic disease. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the essential oil (EO) extracted from C. obtusa leaves against MRSA was investigated. MRSA growth and acid production from glucose metabolism were inhibited at concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/mL C. obtusa EO. MRSA biofilm formation was observed using scanning electron microscopy and safranin staining. C. obtusa EO inhibited MRSA biofilm formation at concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/mL. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, mRNA expression of virulence factor genes, sea, agrA, and sarA, was observed. agrA expression was inhibited with C. obtusa EO concentrations greater than 0.2 mg/mL, whereas inhibition of sea and sarA expression was also observed at a concentration of 0.3 mg/mL. C. obtusa EO was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled for mass spectrometry, which identified 59 constituents, accounting to 98.99% of the total EO. These findings suggest that C. obtusa EO has antibacterial effects against MRSA, which might be associated with the major components of C. obtusa EO, such as sabinene (19.06%), α-terpinyl acetate (16.99%), bornyl acetate (10.48%), limonene (8.54%), elemol (7.47%), myrcene (5.86%), γ-terpinene (4.04%), and hibaene (3.01%).

Tea Tree (Melaluca)

J Hosp Infect. 2000 Nov;46(3):236-7.

Tea tree oil as an alternative topical decolonization agent for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA].

Caelli M1, Porteous J, Carson CF, Heller R, Riley TV.

Author information


The combination of a 4% tea tree oil nasal ointment and 5% tea tree oil body wash was compared with a standard 2% mupirocin nasal ointment and triclosan body wash for the eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage. The tea tree oil combination appeared to perform better than the standard combination, although the difference was not statistically significant due to the small number of patients.

Copyright 2000 The Hospital Infection Society.

Orange Essential Oil

J Appl Microbiol. 2012 May;112(5):1020-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2012.05270.x. Epub 2012 Mar 20.

Antimicrobial effect and mode of action of terpeneless cold-pressed Valencia orange essential oil on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Muthaiyan A1, Martin EM, Natesan S, Crandall PG, Wilkinson BJ, Ricke SC.

Author information



The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antistaphylococcal effect and elucidate the mechanism of action of orange essential oil against antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains.


The inhibitory effect of commercial orange essential oil (EO) against six Staph. aureus strains was tested using disc diffusion and agar dilution methods. The mechanism of EO action on MRSA was analysed by transcriptional profiling. Morphological changes of EO-treated Staph. aureus were examined using transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that 0·1% of terpeneless cold-pressed Valencia orange oil (CPV) induced the cell wall stress stimulon consistent with the inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Transmission electron microscopic observation revealed cell lysis and suggested a cell wall lysis-related mechanism of CPV.


CPV inhibits the growth of Staph. aureus, causes gene expression changes consistent with the inhibition of cell wall synthesis, and triggers cell lysis [death].


Multiple antibiotics resistance is becoming a serious problem in the management of Staph. aureus infections. In this study, the altered expression of cell wall-associated genes and subsequent cell lysis in MRSA caused by CPV suggest that it may be a potential antimicrobial agent to control antibiotic-resistant Staph. aureus.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 Aug 16;12:125. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-125.

Application of orange essential oil as an antistaphylococcal agent in a dressing model.

Muthaiyan A1, Biswas D, Crandall PG, Wilkinson BJ, Ricke SC.

Author information



Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen most often and prevalently involved in skin and soft tissue infections. In recent decades outbreaks of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have created major problems for skin therapy, and burn and wound care units. Topical antimicrobials are most important component of wound infection therapy. Alternative therapies are being sought for treatment of MRSA and one area of interest is the use of essential oils. With the increasing interest in the use and application of natural products, we screened the potential application of terpeneless cold pressed Valencia orange oil (CPV) for topical therapy against MRSA using an in vitro dressing model and skin keratinocyte cell culture model.


The inhibitory effect of CPV was determined by disc diffusion vapor assay for MRSA and vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) strains. Antistaphylococcal effect of CPV in an in vitro dressing model was tested on S. aureus inoculated tryptic soya agar plate. Bactericidal effect of CPV on MRSA and VISA infected keratinocyte cells was examined by enumeration of extra- and intra-cellular bacterial cells at different treatment time points. Cytotoxic effects on human skin cells was tested by adding CPV to the keratinocyte (HEK001) cells grown in serum free KSFM media, and observed by phase-contrast microscope.


CPV vapour effectively inhibited the MRSA and VISA strains in both disc diffusion vapour assay and in vitro dressing model. Compared to untreated control addition of 0.1% CPV to MRSA infected keratinocyte decreased the viable MRSA cells by 2 log CFU/mL in 1 h and in VISA strain 3 log CFU/mL reduction was observed in 1 h. After 3 h viable S. aureus cells were not detected in the 0.2% CPV treatment. Bactericidal concentration of CPV did not show any cytotoxic effect on the human skin keratinocyte cells in vitro.


At lower concentration addition of CPV to keratinocytes infected with MRSA and VISA rapidly killed the bacterial cells without causing any toxic effect to the keratinocytes. Therefore, the results of this study warrant further in vivo study to evaluate the potential of CPV as a topical antistaphylococcal agent.


“The results of experiments showed that oil from L. Angustifolia (lavender) was active against all of the clinical strains…and lavender essential oils were active against multi drug resistant clinical strains of Escherichia Colin genera.”
Med Dosw Mikrobiol. 2011:63(3):273-81.
Sensitivity assessment of thyme and lavender essential oils against clinical strains of Escherichia coli for their resistance.

“Some [mycobacterium] species/strains were completely inhibited in the presence of [Valencia orange essential oil].”
J Environ Sci Health B. 2012 Aug;47(7):736-41.
In vitro effects of citrus oils against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria of clinical importance.

“The results of this study suggest that essential oil of C. Li on and C. Zeylanicum may suppress the growth of Acinetobacter species and could be a source of metabolites with antibacterial modifying activity.”
Nat Prod Res. 2011 Dec 23.
Increasing antibiotic activity against a multi drug-resistant Acinetobacter app by essential oils of Citrus li on and Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

In Brazilian folk medicine, lemongrass has a hypnotic and anticonvulsant effect. Besides helping to break up Candida biofilm, studies also show that lemongrass can lower blood pressure. This may have something to do with the fact that lemongrass is a powerful antioxidant and can help to stop inflammation.

The Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research confirms the antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antifungal, and antibacterial properties of lemongrass, along with its benefits in folk medicine as an “antispasmodic, hypotensive, anticonvulsant, analgesic, antiemetic, antitussive, antirheumatic, antiseptic and treatment for nervous and gastrointestinal disorders and fevers.”4 When the essential oil is vaporized, it can be even more effective in altering the cellular structures and surfaces of Candida.5 Lemongrass oil has direct aromatic applications for Candida and oral thrush to improve digestive health.6

Clove, most notable for its mouth-numbing effect, is popular in Asian, African, and Mexican cuisine. In Indian Ayurvedic medicine, clove is used to dull pain (especially toothaches), to enhance digestion, and to kill parasites. And likewise, in Chinese herbal medicine, clove warms the digestive fire. It is also used to soothe morning sickness in pregnant women. Western studies have found that clove is an antioxidant and that it can help to reduce blood sugar levels, as well as ease dental pain.

Clove essential oil has notable use as an antiseptic because of its ability to inhibit bacteria and yeast.7 In a study published in the Journal of Medical Microbiology, clove essential oil was able to obstruct Candida formation with its antifungal activity. Researchers recommended further investigation into the use of clove essential oil for the clinical treatment of fungal infection.8″

Mood/Emotional Health

“In conclusion, the present work evidenced sedative and anxiolytic [anxiety] effects of [lemon essential oil]…and also and antidepressant effect.”
Pharmazie. 2011 Aug;66(8):623-7.
Sedative, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of Citrus limon (Burn) essential oil in mice.

“Essential oils have traditionally been used for decades to alleviate the symptoms of various mental problems…Our findings also suggest [various components of lavender oil] is essential for the whole oil to work as an inhaled anti anxiety agent.”
Nat Prod Commun. 2011 Nov;6(11):1769-74.
Intersperses comparison of chemical composition and anxiolytic like effects of lavender oils upon inhalation.

“Our investigation demonstrates the use of [bergamot and lavender oils] for treating depression or anxiety in humans.”
Nat Prod Commun. 2011 Aug;6(8):1199-204.
Aroma-therapeutic effects of massage blended essential oils on humans.

Respiratory Support

“H. Influenza epidemic, parainfluenzae, and S. Maltophiolia were susceptible, followed by S. Pneumonia [to eucalyptus essential oil].”
Curr Microbiol. 2008 Jan;56(1):89-92. Epub 2007 Oct 31.
Effect of eucalyptus essential oil on respiratory bacteria and viruses.

“The severity and duration of the symptoms of rhinitis decreased in more than 80% of the children [with and essential oil blend]. Simultaneously, the requirement of decongestants and local antibiotics was reduced.”
Vestn Otorinolaringol. 2011;(5):51-4.
[The efficacy of the application of essential oils for the prevention of acute respiratory diseases in organized groups of children].

Skin Health

“The experimental studies revealed that [oregano blend] formulation displays remarkable wound healing activity.”
J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Mar 8;134(1):89-96.
A Novel wound healing ointment: a formulation of Hypericum perforating oil and sage and oregano essential oils based on traditional Turkish knowledge.

“The present findings seem to indicate that topical application of [frankincense oil] may represent a suitable treatment option for selected features of skin photo aging.”
Dermatol Ther. 2010 Jan-Feb;23 Suppl 1:S28-32.
Topical Boswellic-acids for treatment of photo aged skin.



Ring worm and athlete’s foot
Softens corns
Cuts and scrapes
Itching of insect bites and chicken pox
In fact, tea tree oil may be a better alternative to conventional skin treatments.

Tea tree oil is an excellent treatment for acne. One study found tea tree oil to be just as effective as benzoyl peroxide, but without the negative side effects like redness and peeling.2 Tea tree oil can also treat minor wounds, encourage healing, and prevent infection, so you may want to add this versatile oil to your own first aid kit!”

Brain Health

“The present study suggests that inhalation of lavender essential oil may be an effective and safe treatment modality in acute management of migraine headaches.”
Eur Neurol. 2012;67(5):288-91.
Lavender essential oil in the treatment of migraine headache: a placebo-controlled clinical trial.

“These lemon essential oils showed strong ability to improve impaired memory…”
Nutr Neurosci. 2009 Apr;12(2):57-64.
Components of lemon essential oil attenuate dementia induced by scopolamine.


“This study suggests that this [essential oil blend] formula can serve as a reference for alternative and complementary medicine on [pain from] primary dysmenorrhea.”
J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2012 May;38(5):817-22.
Pain relief assessment by aromatic essential oil massage on outpatients with primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

“Aroma hand massage had a positive effect on pain in hospice patients with terminal cancer.”
Tehran Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2008 Aug;38(4):493-502.
[Effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer].

Immune Support

“Clove exerted immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting LPS action. A possible mechanism of action probably involved the suppression of the nuclear factor-DB pathway…”
J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012 Apr;64(4):610-6.
Clove and Eugenia in noncytotoxic concentrations exert immunomodulatory/anti inflammatory action on cytokine production by murine macrophages.

“The results of this study indicate that parsley essential oil may be able to suppress the cellular and humoral immune response. It can also suppress both NO production and the functions of macrophages as the main innate immune cells.”
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxical. 2012 Apr;34(2):303-8.
Immunomodulatory effect of Parsley (Petroselinum crisp up) essential oil on immune cells: mitten-activated splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages.

Joint Health

“Thus, topical dermal delivery of EO-containing ointment down-modulates the severity of adjuvant arthritis…by inhibiting defined mediators of inflammation.”
Photother Res. 2012 Jan;26(1):54-9. Doi: 10.1002/ptr.3509.
Topical dermal application of essential oils attenuated the severity of adjuvant arthritis in Lewis rats.

Oral Health

“M. Alternifolia oil…is effective in treating denture stomatitis.”
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Oral Radiol Endod. 2008 Mar;105(3):327-32.
In vitro and in vivo activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) mixed with tissue conditioner on Candida albicans.

“[Cancer sore] patients treated with lavender oil showed a significant reduction in inflammation level, ulcer size, healing time…and pain relief mostly from the first dose.”
Am J Dent. 2012 Feb;25(1):39-43.
Topical lavender oil for the treatment of recurrent aphthous ulceration.


“These results confirmed the traditional use of [citronella] for the treatment of gastric ulcer. Thus, we provide the first evidence that [citronella essential oil] reduces the gastric damage…”
J Young Pharm. 2012 Jan;4(1):28-32.
Investigation of the mechanisms underlying the gastroprotective effect of cymbopogon citratus essential oil.

“This study showed that peppermint oil enhances gastric emptying, suggesting the potential use of peppermint oil in clinical settings for patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders.”
J Gastroenterol. 2007 Jul;42(7):539-42. ePub 2007 Jul 25.
Early effects of peppermint oil on gastric emptying: a crossover study using a continuous real-time 13C breath test (BreathID system).


“It can be concluded that the essential oil of [myrtle] reduces leukocyte migration to the damaged tissue and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity.”
Nat Prod Commun. 2011 Oct;6(10):1545-8.
Essential oil of Myrtus communis inhibits inflammation in rats by reducing serum IL-6 and TNF-alpha.

“Moreover, from thyme oil, we identified carvacrol as a major component of the suppressor of COX-2 expression… In human macrophage-like U937 cells, [thyme oil] suppressed COX-2 mRNA and protein expression, suggesting that carvacrol regulates COX-2 [inflammation].”
J Lipid Res. 2010 Jan;51(1):132-9.
Carvacrol, a component of thyme oil, activates PPARalpha and gamma and suppresses COX-2 expression.


“Pharmacological test showed that orange peel essential oil treatment could increase antioxidant enzymes activities…[and] decrease oxidative injury.”
Int J Biol Macromol. 2012 May 1;50(4):1144-50.

“Oregano essential oil inhibited the oxidation process. Antioxidant activity of the oil increased with increase of its concentration.”
Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2011 Jul-Aug;47(4):490-4.
Oregano essential oil as an inhibitor of higher fatty acid oxidation.